Health & Lifestyle

A healthy lifestyle boosts your energy, improves your mental outlook and enhances your quality of life. Regardless of your current health, you can begin making positive lifestyle changes today. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle does not mean an overnight transformation. Gradually integrate healthy lifestyle choices into your normal daily routine.

These small changes will add up to big results -a long, healthy life:
1. Eat healthy 2. Move your body 3. Say goodbye to bad habits 4. Reduce your stress levels 5. Control your weight 6. Get a good night’s sleep!


Vitamins, Supplements & Minerals
Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients your body needs in small amounts to work properly. Most people should get all the nutrients they need by eating a varied and balanced diet. If you choose to take vitamin and mineral supplements, be aware that taking too many or taking them for too long can cause harmful effects.

Some people may need to take vitamin and mineral supplements. For information on who could benefit from supplements, ask your pharmacist.
What are vitamins?
There are two types of vitamins:
Fat-soluble vitamins are found mainly in fatty foods such as animal fats, including butter and lard, vegetable oils, dairy foods, liver and oily fish. While your body needs these vitamins every day to work properly, you do not need to eat foods containing them every day. This is because your body stores these vitamins in your liver and fatty tissues for future use. These stores can build up so they are there when you need them. However, if you have much more than you need, fat-soluble vitamins can be harmful.

Fat-soluble vitamins are:

  • vitamin A
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin E
  • vitamin K

Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body, so you need to have them more frequently.
If you have more than you need, your body gets rid of the extra vitamins when you urinate. As the body does not store water-soluble vitamins, these vitamins are generally not harmful. However, this does not mean that all large amounts are necessarily harmless.

Water-soluble vitamins are found in fruit, vegetables and grains. Unlike fat-soluble vitamins, they can be destroyed by heat or by being exposed to the air. They can also be lost in water used for cooking. This means that by cooking foods, especially boiling them, we lose many of these vitamins. The best way to keep as many of the water-soluble vitamins as possible is to steam or grill foods, rather than boil them.

Water-soluble vitamins are:

  • vitamin C
  • the B vitamins
  • Folic acid.

There are also many other types of vitamins that are an important part of a healthy diet.

What are minerals? Minerals are necessary for three main reasons:

  • building strong bones and teeth
  • controlling body fluids inside and outside cells
  • turning the food you eat into energy


Minerals are found in foods such as meat, cereals (including cereal products such as bread), fish, milk and dairy foods, vegetables, fruit (especially dried fruit) and nuts.

Essential minerals include calcium and iron, although there are also many other types of minerals that are an important part of a healthy diet.

Sports Nutrition
Sports nutrition is a broad interdisciplinary field that involves dieticians, biochemists, exercise physiologists, cell and molecular biologists, and occasionally psychotherapists. It has both a basic science aspect that includes such concerns as understanding the body’s use of nutrients during athletic competition and the need for nutritional supplements among athletes; and an application aspect, which is concerned with the use of proper nutrition and dietary supplements to enhance an athlete’s performance.

The psychological or psychiatric dimension of sports nutrition is concerned with eating and other mental disorders related to nutrition among athletes.

Read more about the PowerBar Sports Nutrition products we stock at Klerksdorp HealthPharm.


Read more about the SportsMax Advanced Sport Supplement we stock at Klerksdorp HealthPharm.

Allergies and Sinus
An allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system. Allergic reactions occur when a person’s immune system reacts to normally harmless substances in the environment. A substance that causes a reaction is called an allergen. These reactions are acquired, predictable, and rapid. Allergy is one of four forms of hypersensitivity and is formally called type I (or immediate) hypersensitivity. Allergic reactions are distinctive because of excessive activation of certain white blood cells called mast cells and basophils by a type of antibody called Immunoglobulin E (IgE). This reaction results in an inflammatory response which can range from uncomfortable to dangerous.
Mild allergies like hay fever are very common in the human population and cause symptoms such as red eyes, itchiness, and runny nose, eczema, hives, or an asthma attack. Allergies can play a major role in conditions such as asthma. In some people, severe allergies to environmental or dietary allergens or to medication may result in life-threatening reactions called anaphylaxis. Food allergies, and reactions to the venom of stinging insects such as wasps and bees are often associated with these severe reactions.
Colds and Flu
Your Cold and Flu Symptoms, Explained:
1. The Symptom: Sneezing What it means: Your body is expelling bacteria and other particles with a sudden, involuntary burst of air. Don’t suppress a sneeze, as your body is trying to evict the irritants. 2. The Symptom: Chills and Fever What it means: Chills are the way the body generates heat when it feels cold. They usually precede a fever, the body’s method for defending itself by raising its temperature to fight a virus. 3. The Symptom: Sore Throat What it means: Mucus is dripping into the back of your throat, causing irritation and inflammation. 4. The Symptom: Runny Nose What it means: Your body has stepped up mucus production to remove the cold or flu viruses from your nasal passages. 5. The Symptom: Sinus Pressure What it means: Mucus has congested the nasal passages and may be trapped in the sinuses because they are not draining properly. 6. The Symptom: Cough What it means: A reflex that keeps the throat clear, a cough is triggered when excessive mucus (or some other irritant) has irritated the nerve endings in the respiratory tract. 7. The Symptom: Swollen Glands What it means: Your lymph nodes are producing an army of infection-fighting cells to battle the invading virus. 8. The Symptom: Body Aches What it means: More common with the flu, all over aches are a sign your body is releasing chemicals that help your white blood cells fight off infection.
Pain Relief and Management
We all know what pain is. We have all suffered from it. Sometimes, we hardly notice it. Sometimes, it’s unbearable. Usually, it goes away on its own. Sometimes, it goes away with treatment. Rarely, it doesn’t go away at all, but becomes persistent (sometimes called chronic) pain.

Some pain is easy to understand because, for example, there is an obvious injury such as a cut or a bruise. Some is less obvious. You cannot see the pain of appendicitis, but anyone who has had it will tell you that it is real enough. Health professionals use different terms for different types of pain. Short term pain, such as a sprained ankle, is called ‘acute’ pain. Long-term pain, such as back pain, is called ‘persistent’ or ‘chronic’ pain. Pain that comes and goes, like a headache, is called ‘recurrent’ pain. It is not unusual to have more than one sort of pain, or to have pain in several places.
Many acute pains are a useful alarm signal that something is wrong. Most minor ones get better on their own or with simple treatment. Others may be a sign of something more serious, such as a broken leg. This pain is helpful because it means that you get treatment and rest your leg until the break has had a chance to heal. On the other hand, persistent pain Appears to serve no useful purpose, but has a huge effect on the lives of many people.
Eye Care

  • Eat lots of fruits and veggies
  • Avoid wearing contact lenses for more than 19 hours
  • Use allergen-reducing eye drops sparingly
  • Use cucumber on your eyelids
  • Wear UV protective sunglasses
  • Try not to spend so much time looking at your computer screen
  • Wear goggles when appropriate
  • Exercise your eyes, and also be sure to relax them
  • Do not read in dim light
  • Do not look at a bright light directly

Ear, Nose & Throat

What is the ear?
External or outer ear, consisting of:

  • Pinna or auricle – the outside part of the ear
  • External auditory canal or tube – the tube that connects the outer ear to the inside or middle ear

Tympanic membrane – also called the eardrum.

  • The tympanic membrane divides the external ear from the middle ear

Middle ear (tympanic cavity), consisting of:

  • Ossicles – three small bones that are connected and transmit the sound waves to the inner ear. The bones are called: malleus, incus, stapes

Eustachian tube – a canal that links the middle ear with the throat area.

  • The Eustachian tube helps to equalize the pressure between the outer ear and the middle ear. Having the same pressure allows for the proper transfer of sound waves. The Eustachian tube is lined with mucous, just like the inside of the nose and throat

Inner ear, consisting of:

  • cochlea (contains the nerves for hearing)
  • vestibule (contains receptors for balance)
  • semicircular canals (contain receptors for balance)

What is the nose?
The nose is the organ of smell and is part of the peripheral nervous system. The external part of the nose lies above the roof of the mouth.

The nose consists of:

  • External meatus – triangular-shaped projection in the center of the face
  • External nostrils – two chambers divided by the septum
  • Septum – made up primarily of cartilage and bone and covered by mucous membranes. The cartilage also gives shape and support to the outer part of the nose.
  • Nasal passages – passages that are lined with mucous membranes and tiny hairs (cilia) that help to filter the air
  • Sinuses – four pairs of air-filled cavities that are also lined with mucous membranes

What is the throat?
The throat is a ring-like muscular tube that acts as the passageway for air, food, and liquid. The throat also helps in forming speech.

The throat consists of:

  • Larynx – houses the vocal cords and is crucial to speech and breathing. The larynx also serves as a passageway to both the trachea (windpipe to the lung) and the esophagus (canal to the stomach).
  • Epiglottis – located above the larynx and works with the larynx and vocal cords to push the food into the esophagus, therefore keeping food from entering the windpipe.
  • Tonsils and adenoids – made up of lymph tissue and are located at the back and the sides of the mouth. They protect against infection, but generally have little purpose beyond childhood.

Dental
Good oral health is important for general health, well-being and quality of life. It brings significant benefits to self-esteem, dignity, social integration and general nutrition. Poor oral health can lead to pain and tooth loss, and can negatively impact self-esteem and the ability to eat, laugh and smile. This factsheet describes some of the dental problems that people with dementia at different stages may face and methods for prevention and treatment.
Dental disease There are two main types of dental disease – gum (periodontal) disease and tooth decay (dental caries, more commonly known as cavities). Both can cause discomfort or pain and can lead to the development of infection. Both pain and infection can worsen the confusion associated with dementia.
Gum disease Gum disease can cause inflamed and bleeding gums, gum recession (where the gum tissue is reduced, causing the roots of the teeth to become exposed), loose teeth and bad breath. It is caused by the buildup of dental plaque. Plaque is a combination of food debris and bacteria from the mouth – everyone has some of it. Plaque leads to gum disease if it is not removed by efficient cleaning as it builds up on the surface of the teeth, particularly where the teeth meet the gum. Good oral hygiene (keeping the teeth, gums and mouth clean by brushing and flossing) and the use of a tooth gel or mouth rinse containing Chlorhexidine (an antiseptic and disinfectant agent) can help to control gum disease.

Tooth decay
Tooth decay is caused by the action of dental plaque on the teeth when food and drinks containing sugar are consumed. Essentially, the bacteria in plaque feed on the sugar, producing acid, which in turn attacks the tooth, causing decay. Dentists recommend restricting the intake of sugar to two to three times a day, preferably at mealtimes, as it is the number of times we eat sugar in a day, rather than the total amount of sugar consumed that is important in guarding against tooth decay. This includes hidden sugars in foods, as well as sugar added to food or drinks. A healthy diet, good oral hygiene, and the use of toothpaste or a mouth rinse containing fluoride will also help prevent tooth decay. High-energy food supplements contain high levels of sucrose – a form of sugar. If they are used on a regular basis, it is important that the teeth are kept very clean to minimize the risk of decay. Gum recession increases the chances of tooth decay occurring at the necks of the teeth (where the crown of the tooth meets the root at the gum) unless oral hygiene is excellent and dietary sugar is controlled. When food supplements are prescribed for a person with natural teeth, it is important to get advice on prevention from the dental team.)
Diet & Fitness


10 easy-to-follow health tips:

  1. Eat right – eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a knave and dinner like a pauper.
  2. Go for regular health check-ups –Let no secrets come between you and your body.
  3. Exercise – Release happy hormones (endorphins) by engaging in regular physical activity.
  4. Say no to red – Do not eat too much red meat.
  5. Watch your alcohol intake – Toast only on special occasions like your birthday or anniversary.
  6. Watch your alcohol intake – Toast only on special occasions like your birthday or anniversary
  7. Quit smoking – Kick the butt for better sex life, for slower ageing of skin, to prevent cancer.
  8. Start healthy – Begin your day with a glass of lukewarm water.
  9. Stop stressing – Don’t worry, be happy
  10. Workout ethics – Don’t exercise on an empty stomach.
Sexual Wellness
Sexual and reproductive health and well-being are essential if people are to have responsible, safe, and satisfying sexual lives. Sexual health requires a positive approach to human sexuality and an understanding of the complex factors that shape human sexual behaviour. These factors affect whether the expression of sexuality leads to sexual health and well-being or to sexual behaviours that put people at risk or make them vulnerable to sexual and reproductive ill-health. Health programme managers, policy-makers and care providers need to understand and promote the potentially positive role sexuality can play in people’s lives and to build health services that can promote sexually healthy societies.

The past three decades have seen dramatic changes in understanding of human sexuality and sexual behaviour. The pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has played a major role in this, but it is not the only factor. The toll taken on people’s health by other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion, infertility, gender-based violence, sexual dysfunction, and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation has been amply documented and highlighted in national and international studies. In line with the recognition of the extent of these problems, there have been huge advances in knowledge about sexual function and sexual behaviour, and their relationship to other aspects of health, such as mental health and general health, well-being and maturation.

These advances, together with the development of new contraceptive technologies, medications for sexual dysfunction, and more holistic approaches to the provision of family planning and other Reproductive health care services, have required health providers, managers and researchers to redefine their approaches to human sexuality. Sexual health was defined as part of reproductive health in the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994. Statements about sexual health were drawn from a WHO Technical Report of 1975 (1), which included the concept of sexual health as something “enriching” and that “enhance[s] personality, communication and love”. It went further by stating that “fundamental to this concept are the right to sexual information and the right to pleasure”.

In response to the changing environment, WHO, in collaboration with the World Association for Sexology (WAS), began a collaborative process  to reflect on the state of sexual health globally and define the areas where WHO and its partners could provide guidance to national health managers, policy-makers and care providers on how better to address sexual health. As in 1975, the process began with a review of key terminology and of the evidence, and culminated in the convening of a large group of experts from around the world to discuss the state of sexual health globally.
Hygiene
Personal hygiene can be a sensitive subject to bring up to a classroom of students or to your own children. It is important to instill good hygiene practices early on to prevent cavities, infections and other health problems. Your child or student must also feel safe discussing this topic with you, especially as they begin to go through puberty. Most teens must change their personal hygiene habits at this point. There are a number of ways to teach personal hygiene. In most cases, you must explain how germs work, develop a hygiene plan and make good hygiene fun. This article will explain how to teach personal hygiene.

Consumption of healthy food is not the only factor required for good health. Healthy lifestyle and good habits are equally important. Some of the healthy habits we all must follow:
•    Bathing regularly to remove sweat and dirt •    Washing hands before eating •    Keeping finger nails trim and clean •    Rinsing or brushing teeth after every meal •    Washing eyes with cold, clean water •    Wearing clean undergarments
Baby Care
A great variety of baby skin and hair care products are brought to the market. Those products claim to be specially developed for the delicate baby skin, and therefore specific requirements should be considered when developing products for the care of babies. In order to understand whether babies need different skin and hair care cosmetics than adults, it seems necessary to explain some anatomical and physiological differences of the skin and annexes between both groups. A further distinction can be made between the skin of full-term and premature babies.




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